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Its rules and processes become the authority governing the organization, and not even the CEO can override them. A good boss is both cheerleader and traffic cop — inspiring employees to keep moving, assigning tasks, setting deadlines, and monitoring productivity. If we remove the boss, what happens to the work? In fact, with a robust self-management practice in place, the opposite is true.

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Holacracy grants people much greater authority over their domains of responsibility, and the result is that most people take ownership of their roles and step up to drive their own workflow without needing a boss to motivate or discipline them. Each person becomes the boss of their own roles. Replacing traditional hierarchy with Holacracy does not create leaderless chaos, but a leader-full workplace. Another key function good bosses provide is clarity. In a traditional organization, if you removed the boss, this structure might quickly collapse. In a self-managing organization, however, this function becomes something everyone participates in.

The result is that you end up with more structure, not less, than in a management hierarchy. We use a defined decision-making process to regularly refine and streamline the way teams work together.

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Everyone, in a sense, becomes more entrepreneurial — creating structure and defining key processes. Governance also allows teams to create processes to replace common boss-functions like hiring, firing, compensation, and performance review. Rather than vesting these significant powers in a single person, they can be entrusted to peer-to-peer assessment processes that the team creates together.

A good boss can act as a rudder for a team, keeping it on course and ensuring that everyone is pulling in the same direction. Without bosses, how is that alignment achieved? This is a legitimate concern in the shift to self-management. Here again, a good governance process proves to be as effective as a boss, if not more so. For example, misalignment in organizations is often caused by implicit assumptions and mismatched expectations.

The governance process can be used to make the expectations attached to a role explicit so that everyone knows what they and their colleagues are accountable for. And if something goes out of alignment, governance meetings provide a venue for self-correcting and getting clarity. University of Queensland Library. University Library. University of Western Australia Library. Brennan Library. May not be open to the public Held.

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Libraries Tasmania. Macquarie University. Monash University. Murdoch University. Apart from requirements for organisations and teams, the individual team member needs to fit the self-directed teams as well. The promoting and impeding factors for individuals will be reviewed below. To reduce this resistance, a clear explanation of what self-directed teams include and how they operate, has shown effective. Team members who take on the rotating role of team leader within the self-directed teams, must have certain skills and attitudes.

Firstly, they ought to have expertise concerning the topic at hand Banai et al. Leadership within a team is an important skill to acquire, but self-leadership can be even more important. In order to function within, and contribute to, a self-directed team, team members require to possess certain skills. In this process, it can be helpful to delineate external behaviour-focused rewards, and instead let the team members discover their internal drives and rewards.

However, there is a major difference between self-leadership and individual autonomy. Individual autonomy can actually impede successful implementation of self-directed teams. The combination of low self-autonomy and high team-autonomy showed to be most successful and sustainable in self-directed teams Langred, ; Self-leadership is an important skill, just as assignment-related skills and knowledge.

Apart from that, absence of required skills can offset a decrease in exercising autonomy, which is a key characteristic of self-directed teams Mcnair, et al.

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To achieve this, time and resources to develop necessary skills must be available Banai, et al. Sub-skills concerned with teamwork that are important for self-directed teams, are the ability to lead, communicate, and conduct meetings effectively Banai, et al. In short, a team member of a self-directed team must possess certain knowledge, skills, and attitudes. This starts with being open to change. Apart from that, shared, as well as rotating leadership, tends to have a positive effect on team performance, as long as the leader possesses the right skills.

Apart from that, self-leadership determines the success of self-directed teams as well. This is one of the skills a team member must possess, aside from skills concerning the tasks the team must perform, and teamwork skills in general. Conclusion and Implications In conclusion, self-directed teams are teams with a diversity of skills and knowledge, who are collectively responsible and accountable for planning, managing, and executing tasks to reach a common goal.

The main advantages of self-directed teams are increased job satisfaction, elevated motivation, and stronger resilience to changes. These effects can be countered if employees experience peer pressure or responsibility-induced stress. Promoting and impeding factors for self-directed teams can be categorised on a n organisation, team, and individual level. On the level of the organisation, the structure and culture is important.

1. Introduction

Before the start of the self-directed teams, support from management must be made apparent, and both the tasks and goals of the self-directed teams must be clear beforehand. The tasks should also be low task routine, and high task innovativeness, in order for a self-directed team to flourish. Management can support the self-directed teams by staying clear of rigid frameworks and short-term deadlines.

Apart from that, a requirement of self-directed teams is that the culture of an organisation sees experimenting and risk-taking as a merit. This can be supported by management through encouraging self-reflection, self-reinforcement, and self-criticism. For a team, it is important to determine beforehand if the team is ready for self-directed teams. If this is the case, short-term objectives must be formulated, and the initiator should present a framework and elaborate on the benefits of self-directed teams. After this, the teams must receive lasting and effective training on being team players within a self-directed team.

During this process, there has to be room for input, suggestions, and questions from team members. This is also important during the assembly of teams, where mix of skills, mix of work experience, and friendship need to be taken into consideration. In the establishment of self-directed teams, it is important to address and include job rotation, as well as team autonomy. When the teams are effective, communication within, as well as outside the team must be valued.

On an individual level, the employee must know beforehand what self-directed teams are and how they operate. Secondly, employees must possess or develop team player, leadership, and self-leadership skills. The professionalisation it requires from the individual, should be made known beforehand. Apart from that, the employee must be made aware of the fact that team autonomy is more important than individual autonomy. Bibliography Adler, P. Research in Organizational Behavior, 15, Allen, D.

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British Journal of Industrial Relations , 39, Bernstein, E. Beyond the holacracy hype. Harvard Business Review. De Verandermanagementbox. Schiedam: Managementboek. Brown, M. Caramanica, L. Communication briefs.

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Self-directed work teams: use with caution. Nursing Management, 32 12 , Carte, T. Emergent leadership in self-managed virtual teams. Group Decision and Negotiation, 15, Towards a systems theory of motivated behavior in work teams. Research in Organizational Behavior , 27, Complexity and Postmodernism: Understanding Complex Systems. Routledge: London. Cohen, S. What makes team work: Group effectiveness research from the shop floor to the executive suite.

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Journal of Management, 23, — Cohen, S. The effectiveness of self-managing teams: A quasiexperiment. Human Relations, 47, Benefits of global software development: Exploring the unexplored. Software Process: Improvement and Practice, 14, Decision-making in teams: Issues arising from two UK evaluations. Journal of Interprofessional Care , 15, The impact of autonomy and task uncertainty on team performance: A longitudinal field study.

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, Attitudinal and behavioral effects of autonomous group working: A longitudinal field study. Academy of Management Journal , 34 2 , — Cotton, J. Leren veranderen; Een handboek voor de veranderkundige. Deventer: Kluwer. De Jong, A.

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Antecedents and consequences of the service climate in boundary-spanning self-managing service teams. Journal of Marketing , 68, De kunst van veranderen. Deventer, The Netherlands: Kluwer. Doorewaard, H. Team responsibility structure and team performance. Personnel Review, 31, The content of effective teamwork mental models in self-managing teams: Ownership, learning and heedful interrelating. Human Relations , 55, Druskat, V. Managing from the boundary: The effective leadership of self-managing work teams.

Eseryel, U. Action-embedded transformational leadership in self-managing global information systems development teams. Journal of Strategic Information Systems , 22, Discursive leadership: In conversation with leadership psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Fausing, M. Moderators of shared leadership: Work function and team autonomy.