- Neuroendocrine integration of nutritional signals on reproduction
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- Frontiers | Neuroendocrine Role for VGF | Endocrinology
In fact, striking similarities between food reward and drug addiction mechanisms have been reported DiLeone et al. Therefore, these complex interactions between the homeostatic and non-homeostatic systems culminate in coordinated appetite and energy balance regulation through the modulation of endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral outputs Fig. The precise integrative mechanisms of these different levels of regulation and the generation of specific physiological outputs are among the main unsolved enigmas of the central regulation of energy balance.
Figure 2 Download Figure Download figure as PowerPoint slide Schematic integration of the different levels of food intake and energy balance regulation. Food intake and energy balance are coordinately regulated by homeostatic and non-homeostatic neural mechanisms. Circulating hormones and vagus stimuli inform the CNS about whole-body nutritional and energy status.
Leptin and insulin are believed to be involved in the long-term regulation of energy balance, while GI hormones and vagal afferents represent a short-term regulatory mechanism.
These hormones act in concert to engage specific neuronal circuits in homeostatic and hedonic centers, establishing dynamic and complex interactions between these different brain regions to elaborate coordinated endocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to regulate energy balance. Sensory, emotional, and social cues also influence ingestive behaviors probably through non-homeostatic and higher brain structures.
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The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the review reported. M S is a recipient of an undergraduate grant from the University of Barcelona. This work was carried out in part at the Esther Koplowitz Centre, Barcelona.
Neuroendocrine integration of nutritional signals on reproduction
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Journal of Clinical Investigation 92 — Cell Metabolism 7 — Journal of Neuroscience 22 — Berthoud HR Metabolic and hedonic drives in the neural control of appetite: who is the boss? Current Opinion in Neurobiology 21 — American Journal of Physiology. Peptides 29 — Neuropeptides 42 19 — Bolborea M Dale N Hypothalamic tanycytes: potential roles in the control of feeding and energy balance. Trends in Neurosciences 36 91 — Broadwell RD Brightman MW Entry of peroxidase into neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems from extracerebral and cerebral blood.
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Introduction The regulation of appetite and body weight is an intricate process controlled by redundant and distributed neural systems that integrate a myriad of cognitive, hedonic, emotional, and homeostatic cues to precisely regulate systemic energy balance through behavioral, autonomic, and endocrine outputs. The homeostatic system: hypothalamus and brainstem The hypothalamus: neuronal anatomy, nuclei, and neuropeptides Seminal lesioning studies conducted in rodents during the s and s highlighted the importance of the hypothalamus in the regulation of body weight.
Lateral hypothalamus area The LHA plays a critical role in the mediation of orexigenic responses, a function that can be significantly attributed to orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone MCH neurons. Dorsomedial nucleus The DMN is involved in a range of physiological processes, including appetite, thermoregulation, stress, and circadian rhythms. The brainstem Brainstem neurons make key contributions to the control of energy balance by processing energy status information at four different levels: i by sensing circulating metabolites and hormones released by peripheral organs; ii by receiving vagal inputs from the gastrointestinal GI tract; iii by receiving neuronal inputs from midbrain and forebrain nuclei that also detect and integrate energy-related signals; and iv by projecting into local brainstem circuits and other regions of the brain to provide information that will be integrated by these neurons to control energy balance.
Hormonal signals involved in energy homeostasis control Peripheral adiposity signals: leptin and insulin The discovery of leptin, the product of the Ob gene, in Zhang et al. GI hormones Ghrelin is a amino acid acylated hormone, mainly produced by the stomach, which exerts its biological actions on energy balance through the growth hormone secretagogue receptor GHSR; Kojima et al.
You and Your Hormones
Neural circuits regulating homeostatic energy balance Certain physiological conditions, such as the prandial state, are associated with notable changes in the circulating concentration of metabolites and hormones involved in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis. Correlating neuronal circuit activity with behavioral responses by pharmacogenetic and optogenetic techniques Most of the experimental findings that have allowed researchers to outline the models suggested so far are largely the result of circumstantial evidence.
New players in energy balance control Non-neuronal cell types: macroglia and microglia Glial cells have traditionally been considered satellite neuronal partners with supportive and structural roles. Epigenetic mechanisms The interplay between genetic and environmental factors nutrition, maternal health, chemicals, lifestyle, etc. Concluding remarks: neuronal circuitry integration and physiological responses As has been outlined above, organismal energy balance is regulated by many factors through complex and multi-level integration processes that involve multiple neuronal circuits.
Declaration of interest The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest that could be perceived as prejudicing the impartiality of the review reported. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 72 — CO; false.
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Frontiers | Neuroendocrine Role for VGF | Endocrinology
Mesaros et al. Iskandar et al. Controls production of sex hormones estrogen in women and testosterone in men and the production of eggs in women and sperm in men. Controls blood pressure, both directly and also by regulating aldosterone production from the adrenal glands. Affects development of female sexual characteristics and reproductive development, important for functioning of uterus and breasts; also protects bone health.
Health Home Conditions and Diseases. Hormones and the Endocrine System Facebook Twitter Linkedin Pinterest Print Endocrine System Adrenal Gland Procedures The endocrine system uses hormones to control and coordinate your body's internal metabolism or homeostasis energy level, reproduction, growth and development, and response to injury, stress, and environmental factors.
Affects growth and development; stimulates protein production; affects fat distribution.